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Btc gynaecologieBTC Europe - your local expert for speciality chemicals
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Frs2-mediated activation. Prolonged ERK activation events. Signaling by Leptin. SOS-mediated signalling. VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation. ARMS-mediated activation. Signalling to ERKs. Signalling to RAS. Interleukin receptor SHC signaling. Interleukin-2 signaling. Downstream signal transduction. Signaling by PDGF. DAP12 signaling. RET signaling. Marion Sims is widely considered the father of modern gynaecology.
While performing these surgeries he invited men physicians and students to watch invasive and painful procedures while the women were exposed.
On one of the women, named Anarcha , he performed 30 surgeries without anesthesia. Physicians and students lost interest in assisting Sims over the course of his backyard practice, and he recruited other enslaved women, who were healing from their own surgeries, to assist him. In Sims went on to found the Woman's Hospital in New York, the first hospital specifically for female disorders. In some countries, women must first see a general practitioner GP; also known as a family practitioner FP prior to seeing a gynaecologist.
If their condition requires training, knowledge, surgical procedure, or equipment unavailable to the GP, the patient is then referred to a gynaecologist. In the United States , however, law and many health insurance plans allow gynaecologists to provide primary care in addition to aspects of their own specialty. With this option available, some women opt to see a gynaecological surgeon for non-gynaecological problems without another physician's referral.
As in all of medicine, the main tools of diagnosis are clinical history and examination. Gynaecological examination is quite intimate, more so than a routine physical exam. It also requires unique instrumentation such as the speculum. The speculum consists of two hinged blades of concave metal or plastic which are used to retract the tissues of the vagina and permit examination of the cervix , the lower part of the uterus located within the upper portion of the vagina.
Gynaecologists typically do a bimanual examination one hand on the abdomen and one or two fingers in the vagina to palpate the cervix, uterus, ovaries and bony pelvis. It is not uncommon to do a rectovaginal examination for complete evaluation of the pelvis, particularly if any suspicious masses are appreciated.
Male gynaecologists may have a female chaperone for their examination. An abdominal or vaginal ultrasound can be used to confirm any abnormalities appreciated with the bimanual examination or when indicated by the patient's history.
There is some crossover in these areas. For example, a woman with urinary incontinence may be referred to a urologist. As with all surgical specialties, gynaecologists may employ medical or surgical therapies or many times, both , depending on the exact nature of the problem that they are treating. Pre- and post-operative medical management will often employ many standard drug therapies, such as antibiotics , diuretics , antihypertensives , and antiemetics.
Additionally, gynaecologists make frequent use of specialized hormone -modulating therapies such as Clomifene citrate and hormonal contraception to treat disorders of the female genital tract that are responsive to pituitary or gonadal signals. Surgery, however, is the mainstay of gynaecological therapy. For historical and political reasons, gynaecologists were previously not considered "surgeons", although this point has always been the source of some controversy.
Modern advancements in both general surgery and gynaecology, however, have blurred many of the once rigid lines of distinction. The rise of sub-specialties within gynaecology which are primarily surgical in nature for example urogynaecology and gynaecological oncology have strengthened the reputations of gynaecologists as surgical practitioners, and many surgeons and surgical societies have come to view gynaecologists as comrades of sorts.
As proof of this changing attitude, gynaecologists are now eligible for fellowship in both the American College of Surgeons and Royal Colleges of Surgeons , and many newer surgical textbooks include chapters on at least basic gynaecological surgery.
Some of the more common operations that gynaecologists perform include: . In the UK the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists , based in London, encourages the study and advancement of both the science and practice of obstetrics and gynaecology. This is done through postgraduate medical education and training development, and the publication of clinical guidelines and reports on aspects of the specialty and service provision.
The RCOG International Office works with other international organisations to help lower maternal morbidity and mortality in under-resourced countries. Gynaecologic oncology is a subspecialty of gynaecology, dealing with gynaecology-related cancer.
Improved access to education and the professions in recent decades has seen women gynecologists outnumber men in the once male-dominated medical field of gynecology. Speculations on the decreased numbers of male gynecologist practitioners report a perceived lack of respect from within the medical profession, limited future employment opportunities and even questions to the motivations and character of men who choose the medical field concerned with female sexual organs.
Surveys of women's views on the issue of male doctors conducting intimate examinations show a large and consistent majority found it uncomfortable, were more likely to be embarrassed and less likely to talk openly or in detail about personal information, or discuss their sexual history with a man. Go to Brands and Products. Product brochures and more. Go to Download. Productlines for your industry. Your opinion is important to us. Newsletter Stay informed I want to be informed regularly about topics tailor-made for my industry.
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